Huntington’s Disease

Description:
Huntington’s disease is a neurological genetic disease which targets the Basal Ganglia. The Basal Ganglia is in the center of the brain, and controls motor skills (like swallowing and chewing.), emotions, and cognitive abilities. Also the ceral cerbex is affected. All in all Huntington’s disease affects your nervous system. The reason of Huntington’s disease is that the CAG gene is repeat 40 times. The CAG gene is normally repeated 10-26 times.

Inheritance:
Huntington’s disease is split equally between both sexes; however, the disease doesn’t originate from any certain ethnic group. There aren’t any carriers you ever have it or not. You don’t now you have Huntington’s disease until later in your life when the symptoms start to show.



Symptoms:
· Involuntary muscle movements
· Lose simple motor skills over time (rolling head, clenching hands, etc.)
· Lost of memory
· Muscle spasms
· Twitching
· Difficulties walking, speaking, and swallowing
· Elderly diagnosed with Huntington’s disease will need help putting on clothes and taking baths




Daily Life:
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Diagnosis:
To find out that your baby has Huntington’s disease the mother can take fetus samples of the baby and blood samples. When the baby is born they can do numerous neurological tests; however, these can seem uneasy for the newborn. Another way to diagnose the child is to do number psychological test because the disease affects the nervous system. All in all, blood samples have been the easiest and most effective way to diagnose your baby for Huntington’s disease.




Treatment:
Huntington’s disease is a UN curable disease, but that doesn’t mean they are medication to minimize the symptoms. Medicines they use are anti-depressants. These are used because the person with the disease can feel alienated from the community. Also, they do speech therapy because over time the person loses the ability to speak and swallow. This is why one way people with the disease die is by choking. They can give the person dopamine which reduces the amounts of spasms the person has, and help control over his jerky muscles. All in all, family support is the best thing for the victim. If he knows his family is behind him that can make all the difference.


Research:
Little research has been done for Huntington’s disease until the late 1960’s. In 1977 the congress mad a national Huntington’s disease association. They have used basic neurology to track Huntington’s. Lab animals have been used to duplicate the effects of Huntington’s to help scientist. The congress has been funding this program. For 10 years scientist have been looking at chromosome 4 because they say that is the chromosome that Huntington’s happen on.



Additional Facts:
Huntington’s disease was discovered in 1872 by George Huntington. 1 in every 300,000 people in the U.S. is diagnosed with this disease. Huntington’s disease wasn’t considered “Genetic” until 1993. 500,000 people are at risk of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s develops over a period of 10-25 years. Huntington’s hits all aspects of the family like emotionally, socially, and economically. People who are diagnosed with Huntington’s disease also have a higher chance of suicide.





Punnett Square:
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Pedigree Chart:








Resources:
Pictures
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http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/hunt/index.html


http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec06/ch091/ch091j.html?qt=huntington's disease&alt=sh
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/huntingtons-disease-directory
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/huntingtons-disease/DS00401
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
http://www.hcmc.org/depts/hd/hdhome.